Vegetarianism Research Essay Rubric

1. In U.S., 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians. [(accessed on 15 November 2013)]. Available online:

2. Krey S.H. Alternate dietary lifestyles. Primary Care. 1982;9:595–603.[PubMed]

3. Carlsson-Kanyama A., Gonzalez A.D. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009;89:1704s–1709s. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736AA.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

4. Craig W.J., Mangels A.R. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2009;109:1266–1282. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

5. Fox N., Ward K. Health, ethics and environment: A qualitative study of vegetarian motivations. Appetite. 2008;50:422–429. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.09.007.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

6. Anonymous. Position Paper on the vegetarian approach to eating. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1980;77:61–69.[PubMed]

7. Havala S., Dwyer J. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1993;93:1317–1319. doi: 10.1016/0002-8223(93)91966-T.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. Sabate J., Duk A., Lee C.L. Publication trends of vegetarian nutrition articles in biomedical literature, 1966–1995. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;70:601s–607s.[PubMed]

9. Hardinge M.G., Stare F.J. Nutritional studies of vegetarians. II. Dietary and serum levels of cholesterol. J. Clin. Nutr. 1954;2:83–88.[PubMed]

10. Hardinge M.G., Stare F.J. Nutritional studies of vegetarians. I. Nutritional, physical, and laboratory studies. J. Clin. Nutr. 1954;2:73–82.[PubMed]

11. Hardinge M.G., Crooks H., Stare F.J. Nutritional studies of vegetarians. IV. Dietary fatty acids and serum cholesterol levels. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1962;10:516–524.[PubMed]

12. Hardinge M.G., Johnston P.K. Recognition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;70:431s–432s.[PubMed]

13. Binkley J., Jensen G.L. Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease: Studies of Seventh-day Adventists and Other Vegetarians, by Gary E Fraser, 2003, 392 pages, hardcover, $59.95. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;79:525–526.

14. Butler T.L., Fraser G.E., Beeson W.L., Knutsen S.F., Herring R.P., Chan J., Sabate J., Montgomery S., Haddad E., Preston-Martin S., et al. Cohort profile: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Int. J. Epidemiol. 2008;37:260–265. doi: 10.1093/ije/dym165.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. Tonstad S., Butler T., Yan R., Fraser G.E. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:791–796. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1886.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Phillips R.L., Kuzma J.W. Rationale and methods for an epidemiologic study of cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists. Natl. Cancer Instit. Monogr. 1977;47:107–112.[PubMed]

17. Beeson W.L., Mills P.K., Phillips R.L., Andress M., Fraser G.E. Chronic disease among Seventh-day Adventists, a low-risk group. Rationale, methodology, and description of the population. Cancer. 1989;64:570–581. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19890801)64:3<570::AID-CNCR2820640303>3.0.CO;2-4.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

18. Pettersen B.J., Anousheh R., Fan J., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Fraser G.E. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: Results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nutr. 2012;15:1909–1916. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011003454.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Orlich M.J., Singh P.N., Sabate J., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Fan J., Knutsen S., Beeson W.L., Fraser G.E. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern. Med. 2013;173:1230–1238. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

20. Tantamango-Bartley Y., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Fan J., Fraser G. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2013;22:286–294. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1060.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. Fraser G.E. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;70:532s–538s.[PubMed]

22. Rizzo N.S., Sabate J., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Fraser G.E. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: The adventist health study 2. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1225–1227. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1221.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Vang A., Singh P.N., Lee J.W., Haddad E.H., Brinegar C.H. Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: Findings from Adventist Health Studies. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2008;52:96–104. doi: 10.1159/000121365.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

24. Singh P.N., Fraser G.E. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1998;148:761–774. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009697.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Key T.J., Fraser G.E., Thorogood M., Appleby P.N., Beral V., Reeves G., Burr M.L., Chang-Claude J., Frentzel-Beyme R., Kuzma J.W., et al. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: Detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;70:516s–524s.[PubMed]

26. Phillips R.L., Lemon F.R., Beeson W.L., Kuzma J.W. Coronary heart disease mortality among Seventh-Day Adventists with differing dietary habits: A preliminary report. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1978;31:S191–s198.[PubMed]

27. Fraser G.E. Vegetarian diets: What do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009;89:1607s–1612s. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

28. Tonstad S., Stewart K., Oda K., Batech M., Herring R.P., Fraser G.E. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2013;23:292–299. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.07.004.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

29. Rizzo N.S., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Sabate J., Fraser G.E. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2013;113:1610–1619. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.06.349.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Key T.J., Davey G.K., Appleby P.N. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1999;58:271–275. doi: 10.1017/S0029665199000373.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

31. Lemon F.R., Walden R.T., Woods R.W. Cancer of the lung and mouth in seventh-day adventists. Preliminary report on a population study. Cancer. 1964;17:486–497. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(196404)17:4<486::AID-CNCR2820170410>3.0.CO;2-Z.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Wynder E.L., Lemon F.R. Cancer, coronary artery disease and smoking: A preliminary report on differences in incidence between Seventh-day Adventists and others. Calif. Med. 1958;89:267–272.[PMC free article][PubMed]

33. Wynder E.L., Lemon F.R., Bross I.J. Cancer and coronary artery disease among Seventh-Day Adventists. Cancer. 1959;12:1016–1028. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(195909/10)12:5<1016::AID-CNCR2820120523>3.0.CO;2-2.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

34. Phillips R.L. Role of life-style and dietary habits in risk of cancer among seventh-day adventists. Cancer Res. 1975;35:3513–3522.[PubMed]

35. Fraser G.E., Shavlik D.J. Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch. Intern. Med. 2001;161:1645–1652. doi: 10.1001/archinte.161.13.1645.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Davey G.K., Spencer E.A., Appleby P.N., Allen N.E., Knox K.H., Key T.J. EPIC-Oxford: Lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33,883 meat-eaters and 31,546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6:259–269.[PubMed]

37. Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., Key T.J. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: Results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013;97:597–603. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044073.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

38. Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Spencer E.A., Travis R.C., Roddam A.W., Allen N.E. Cancer incidence in vegetarians: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009;89:1620s–1626s. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736M.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

39. Appleby P.N., Thorogood M., Mann J.I., Key T.J. The Oxford Vegetarian Study: An overview. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;70:525s–531s.[PubMed]

40. Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Mouw T., May A.M., Travier N., Luan J., Wareham N., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., et al. Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010;92:398–407. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28713.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

41. Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Davey G.K., Allen N.E., Spencer E.A., Travis R.C. Mortality in British vegetarians: Review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003;78:533s–538s.[PubMed]

42. Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Spencer E.A., Travis R.C., Roddam A.W., Allen N.E. Mortality in British vegetarians: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009;89:1613s–1619s. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736L.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

43. Lavie C.J., Milani R.V., Ventura H.O. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: Risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009;53:1925–1932. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.12.068.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

44. De Schutter A., Lavie C.J., Patel D.A., Milani R.V. Obesity paradox and the heart: Which indicator of obesity best describes this complex relationship? Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metabol. Care. 2013;16:517–524. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328363bcca.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

45. Lavie C.J., McAuley P.A., Church T.S., Milani R.V., Blair S.N. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases-implications regarding fitness, fatness and severity in the obesity paradox. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014;63:1345–1354.[PubMed]

46. Alpert M.A., Lavie C.J., Agrawal H., Aggarwal K.B., Kumar S.A. Obesity and heart failure: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Transl. Res. 2014 doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2014.04.010.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

47. Reeves G.K., Pirie K., Beral V., Green J., Spencer E., Bull D. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: Cohort study. BMJ. 2007;335:1134.[PMC free article][PubMed]

48. Bonn S.E., Wiklund F., Sjolander A., Szulkin R., Stattin P., Holmberg E., Gronberg H., Balter K. Body mass index and weight change in men with prostate cancer: Progression and mortality. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0393-3.

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