Two new approaches to the fossil record
by Heracli ASTUDILLO-POMBO
Environmental and Soil Sciences Department
Lleida university (Spain)
Cultural Paleontology is the name that we created and use to designate a new field of scientific and humanistic study, which allowed the specific purpose of their research, knowledge of different non-scientific relations that have existed at the time and also, the relationship existing today between the various kinds of fossils and various human societies.
Picture: The Lost World
Ethnopaleontology is a new word-sense idea that we used to introduce a new concept to the field of ethnology, with which we intend to call a new sub-discipline of study, within the Cultural Paleontology. The claims which the collection, study and interpretation of concepts, roles and popular customs and / or traditional that characterized the relations of persons of a cultural community, in particular, with the existing fossil remains in their communities natural (with fossils indigenous) and / or fossils exist in their cultural environment (with allochthonous fossils or foreign) in the social-cultural particular of a concrete historical period. It is the application of the Cultural Paleontology at the small-scale.
Keywords: Cultural Paleontology,Ethnopaleontology, folklore of fossils, Paleontology, Ethnology.
Fossils have attracted the attention of our inquisitive minds since well back into prehistoric times. From ancient tales about their magical or medicinal powers to their many religious and decorative uses it is hardly surprising that a rich and fascinating folklore has developed around these bewildering objects.
Picture: Fossil Folklore,Natural History Museum of London
"CulturalPalaeontology", what that?
Culturalpaleontologyis the namethat we createdandused to refer toa new field ofhumanisticand scientificstudy, which has enabledthe specific purposeof their research,knowledge of differentnon-scientificrelationshipsthat have existedintimeandalsorelationsexistingtodaybetween the variouskinds offossils andvarious human societies.
Their main objectives are: to study, learn and disseminate all kinds of influences that have fossil human culture throughout the history of humanity (eg. magical, superstitious, religious, artistic, economic, fun, etc.).But, excluding, specifically, the majorinfluenceson the knowledge onfossils remains of scientific type(eg. information onbiological evolution,information about relationshipsandpaleoecological conditions, information on the conditionspalaeogeographicdistribution ofhominids, thefauna and flora, thepaléoclimes, the oceans, etc.).
Picture: Victoria & Albert Museum
This new field of knowledge, called Cultural Paleontology, studies the certain aspects socials and scientifics of fossil record, , covers a geographical and social space, very broad and expanded, it should be applied to corporations and territories extension regional, national, continental or global, see, some issues as examples:
-What kindsor speciesof fossilsarepart of the unscientificEuropean culture?
- What European populations have heraldic use of some local fossils?
Iguanodon dinossaur, on the town's coat of arms outside Maidstone Town Hall
Picture:Maidstone Borough Council
- Whatregions in Europehavemedicinal useoffossilbelemnites?
- What are theEuropean countriesincluding intheir unscientific culturegenera and speciesoffossil sea urchins?
The "snake eggs", a fossil sea urchin, by magical celtic tradition If it could be stolen from the snakes it was an object of great magical power. It possession ensured success in battle and disputes.
- What are theEnglish regionsincluding intheir unscientificculturegenera or species offossil shells ofgastropodsand/orof bivalves?
This new area ofstudy on fossil record, calledCulturalPaleontology, was created as a resultof theconvergenceand integration ofverydifferentacademic knowledges, but basically, thesynthesis of threetipesof knowledgesaboutthe fossil remains:
- Ethnologicalknowledge: socialfunctionand interpretation ofetiologicallegends, beliefs irrational orrational,traditionalcustomsand usagesorpopular applicationsof the variousgenera and speciesof fossils.
- Linguistic andliteraryknowledge: study and interpretation of traditional folk legends concerning to fossil remains, collection of common names of various types of fossils and their regional variants and their geographical distribution, etc.. Regional toponymy studies with paleontological motivation.
Illustration of achildren's story, which includes thelegend thatexplainsthe origin of theammonitesofthe cliffs ofthe coast ofWhitby, aspetrifiedsnakesanddecapitatedby SaintHilda
Picture:Myths and Legends Junior Geo Co.
-Scientific knowledge: paleontologicalidentification offossilgenera or species, assigning scientific namesintaxonomyandsystematics,identification of the typeof fossilizationallocationtiming, etc., for eachfossilgenus or species.
These skeleton, are bones of amythical giant orbones of afossilelephant? What is theirage?What is it classifiedzoologically?
From the pointof view ofCulturalPaleontology, their main "scienceassistants"are, Ethnology, PhilologyandPaleontology.Butpaleontologists,ethnologists andlinguistsshould notdisplaytheculturalPaleontologyethnoscienceas acompetitorthreatensto occupy thefieldof itsstrong and establisheddisciplines,but on the contrary, they should consideras ayoungandpotentiallyvaluablepartnercapable of providing, study conventional, innovative perspectivesand alsoable toprovide data thatcan be very usefulto the progress ofeach and every oneof thosesciences.
Types of social influences andcultural contributions exerted bythe fossil record.
If we analyzethe variousinfluences ofdifferent typesof fossils onhuman culturethroughouthistorical timeandgeographical areas, we see that they canagrouperinto two categories: physical influencesandspiritual influences.
We see that certain types of fossils in certain human groups and in historical time, they have generated different types of material culture and they have contributed to the development a multitude of objects, with very diverses social uses: economical, playful, ornamental, magical, medicinal, religious, etc. Other classes of fossils, or the same, but in other societies or at another time, they helped to inspire different aspects of nonmaterial culture, they have contributed to the development of very different ideas: legendary, rationalist, mythical, naturalist or magical interpretation of the paleontological realities, such as formation or accumulation of fossil remains.
Bowl and spoon, likes a fossil ammonite, blead freepewter handmade in the UK
Picture: Glover & Smith
Fossil record andthe material culture.
The studyof different types offossils that havecontributed to thematerial culture ofdifferent societies,we foundthat thefossilswere used assingle objectsor asparts ofcompound objectsand providedsome materialsorsubstancesina varietyof human activities.
Certain kindsof fossils have beenusedas:
- Objectswithspecific andvery differentsocial functions:with ritual, magical, medicinal, decorative, communicative, economic, recreative, etc., functions
"Dig out a dinosaur skeleton with real excavation tools! Grow and shrink a giant dino! Explor like a real paleontologist!"
Picture:Oregon Museum. Science store
- Materials andsubstancesfor averydifferent ordinaryuses: for decorative, medical, recreational, commercial, instrumental, etc., applications
A decorative ammonite pavement, slab to celebrate Lyme Regis' standing as the capital of the Jurassic Coast.
- Materials and substances for a extraordinary use: magical or religious uses, as sacred relics, protective amulets or powerful talismans, etc..
A snakestone, a protective amulet against the bites of snakes, really, it was a manipulated ammonite fossil, genus Hildoceras, originating from the Whitby coast.
Fossil record andnonmaterialculture.
The studyof different types offossil remains that haveexercisedainfluence onnonmaterialculture, we can see, as theyhelped inspiredifferent ideas andbeliefs thathave shapedthe human mind,someofcollectivesocial,indifferent societies,because we see thatparticularkinds offossils, they have:
Until the eighteenth century, was discussed whether theproduct ofmarine fossilsweremythicaluniversalfloodor othernaturalphenomenamore
- Raised or strengthened religious or mythical beliefs: concerning to the intervention of supernatural beings, allegedly extraordinary events, relateds with the fossilization.
- Servedto developedifferents social values: economical, aesthetical, recreational, spiritual, philosophical, etc.. types
Designed by Edmund New, in 1926, represents the legendofSt. Hilda, it was used on a bookplate, note paper and blazer badge in St. Hilda's College, Oxford.
Picture: St Hilda's College Symbols
-Led to thecreation or developmentof certaintechnical procedures: relatedwith theirpracticalapplication or usein some activitiesof daily living, etc..
A paleontologistperformingan excavationof dinosaur fossils,in Niger,WestAfrica.
- Servedassymbolic modelsto create anddevelop systems ofcommunicationand expressionstyleaesthetic, artistic, linguistic,mathematical, scientific, etc..
Old municipal coat of arms of Dudley (1886), with an fossil trilobite, the Calymene blumenbachi, of Silurian (Paleozoic), popularlycalled the Dudley Bug", the Dudley Insect or the Dudley Locust
All these types of record fossil influences,thatwe presentedwereof remarkable importance, but variable, depending on theterritorial andhistorical moments,consideredforthe development of certainphilosophical ideas, aesthetic, religious, economic, social, technological, scientists, etc.., the varioushistorical societieshavetaken into accountthroughout the centuriesand continents.
Main aspectsof the study ofrelationships between humansand fossils, that were considered by theCulturalPaleontology.
Variousnonscientific relationshipsthat have been establishedhistoricallybetween somefossilsexistingterritoryandcommunities in society, in times pastorpresent, can beraised and resolvedbythe study of someparticularboxes, bypaleontologistscultural,in the light ofvarious aspects of theethnographic realityandpaléontholologique, but it is desirableor necessaryto considerwhether the:
-Chronological orhistoricalaspects: in order to establishthe temporal distribution ofthe meaning anduse,documented,some fossilsalongall the timeor onlyhumanin certain periods ofhistory ascultural property.
Picture: E.T. Babinski
-Geographicalor spatialaspects: to locate and distributethe meaning anduse of certainfossils remains in alldifferent parts of theinhabited world,or only in certaincontinents,regions or states.
Picture: The United Kingdom
- Ethnic aspects: to collect and interpret cultural meanings and uses of some fossils in different cultural regions of the world, or only in certain ethnic communities regional or national.
Picture: Scottish Couple around 1700
- Genetic and evolutionary aspects: to discover, in the cultural meanings and traditional uses of certain fossils, what was the original source social and explain the process of transformation of cultural meaning and use of fossil with the passage of time.
Picture: The time pasage
Ethnopaleontology is a new word-sense, ided and used by I to introduce a new concept in the fields of the Ethnology and in the Paleontology, with which we intend to call a new sub-discipline of study, within the Cultural paleontology.
This new sub-discipline, called Ethnopaleontology, claims the collection, study and interpretation of concepts, roles and folk customs and/or traditional that have characterized relations between people of a cultural community, particularly with the existing fossil, in their natural environment (with indigenous fossil) and / or with the existing fossil in their cultural environment (with fossils immigrants or foreign) in the social and cultural context, individuals, a concrete historical period: p.ex. study the relationships with fossil record of society of Southwestern UK , on the XVIII-XIX centuries.
The Ethnopaleontology is the application of Cultural Paleontology, to the small scale, for this reason his research focuses on the specific features, local or sub-regional paleontological folklore, here are some examples
For "Works Cited" lists, see Citation.
"Bibliology" redirects here. For the theological study of the nature of the Bible, see Biblical theology.
Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia). Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic description of books as physical objects (descriptive bibliography).
The word bibliographia (βιβλιογραφία) was used by Greek writers in the first three centuries AD to mean the copying of books by hand. In the 12th century, the word started being used for "the intellectual activity of composing books". The 17th century then saw the emergence of the modern meaning, that of description of books. Currently, the field of bibliography has expanded to include studies that consider the book as a material object. Bibliography in its systematic pursuit of understanding the past and the present through written and printed documents describes a way and means of extracting information from this material. Bibliographers are interested in comparing versions of texts to each other rather than in interpreting their meaning or assessing their significance. 
Bibliography as a field of study
Bibliography is a specialized aspect of library science (or library and information science, LIS) and documentation science. The founder of documentation, Paul Otlet, wrote about "the science of bibliography". However, there have recently been voices claiming that "the bibliographical paradigm" is obsolete, and it is not today common in LIS. A defense of the bibliographical paradigm was provided by Hjørland (2007). The quantitative study of bibliographies is known as bibliometrics, which is today an influential subfield in LIS. 
Branches of bibliography
Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic description of books as physical objects (descriptive bibliography). These two distinct concepts and practices have separate rationales and serve differing purposes. Innovators and originators in the field include W. W. Greg, Fredson Bowers, Philip Gaskell, G. Thomas Tanselle.
Bowers (1949) refers to enumerative bibliography as a procedure that identifies books in “specific collections or libraries,” in a specific discipline, by an author, printer, or period of production (3). He refers to descriptive bibliography as the systematic description of a book as a material or physical artifact. Analytical bibliography, the cornerstone of descriptive bibliography, investigates the printing and all physical features of a book that yield evidence establishing a book's history and transmission (Feather 10). It is the preliminary phase of bibliographic description and provides the vocabulary, principles and techniques of analysis that descriptive bibliographers apply and on which they base their descriptive practice.
Descriptive bibliographers follow specific conventions and associated classification in their description. Titles and title pages are transcribed in a quasi-facsimile style and representation. Illustration, typeface, binding, paper, and all physical elements related to identifying a book follow formulaic conventions, as Bower's established in his foundational opus, The Principles of Bibliographic Description. The thought expressed in this book expands substantively on W. W. Greg's groundbreaking theory that argued for the adoption of formal bibliographic principles (Greg 29). Fundamentally, analytical bibliography is concerned with objective, physical analysis and history of a book while descriptive bibliography employs all data that analytical bibliography furnishes and then codifies it with a view to identifying the ideal copy or form of a book that most nearly represents the printer’s initial conception and intention in printing.
In addition to viewing bibliographic study as being composed of four interdependent approaches (enumerative, descriptive, analytical, and textual), Bowers notes two further subcategories of research, namely historical bibliography and aesthetic bibliography. Both historical bibliography, which involves the investigation of printing practices, tools, and related documents, and aesthetic bibliography, which examines the art of designing type and books, are often employed by analytical bibliographers.
D. F. McKenzie extended previous notions of bibliography as set forth by W. W. Greg, Bowers, Gaskell and Tanselle. He describes the nature of bibliography as "the discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, and the processes of their transmission, including their production and reception" (1999 12). This concept broadens the scope of bibliography to include "non-book texts" and an accounting for their material form and structure, as well as textual variations, technical and production processes that bring sociocultural context and effects into play. McKenzie's perspective contextualizes textual objects or artifacts with sociological and technical factors that have an effect on production, transmission and, ultimately, ideal copy (2002 14). Bibliography, generally, concerns the material conditions of books [as well as other texts] how they are designed, edited, printed, circulated, reprinted, collected.
Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose and can generally be divided into two categories: enumerative bibliography (also called compilative, reference or systematic), which results in an overview of publications in a particular category and analytical or critical bibliography, which studies the production of books. In earlier times, bibliography mostly focused on books. Now, both categories of bibliography cover works in other media including audio recordings, motion pictures and videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs and websites.
An enumerative bibliography is a systematic list of books and other works such as journalarticles. Bibliographies range from "works cited" lists at the end of books and articles, to complete and independent publications. A notable example of a complete, independent publication is Gow's, A. E. Housman: A Sketch, Together with a List of His Classical Papers (1936). As separate works, they may be in bound volumes such as those shown on the right, or computerized bibliographic databases. A library catalog, while not referred to as a "bibliography," is bibliographic in nature. Bibliographical works are almost always considered to be tertiary sources.
Enumerative bibliographies are based on a unifying principle such as creator, subject, date, topic or other characteristic. An entry in an enumerative bibliography provides the core elements of a text resource including a title, the creator(s), publication date and place of publication. Belanger (1977) distinguishes an enumerative bibliography from other bibliographic forms such as descriptive bibliography, analytical bibliography or textual bibliography in that its function is to record and list, rather than describe a source in detail or with any reference to the source's physical nature, materiality or textual transmission. The enumerative list may be comprehensive or selective. One noted example would be Tanselle's bibliography that exhaustively enumerates topics and sources related to all forms of bibliography. A more common and particular instance of an enumerative bibliography relates to specific sources used or considered in preparing a scholarly paper or academic term paper.
Citation styles vary.
An entry for a book in a bibliography usually contains the following elements:
- place of publication
- publisher or printer
- date of publication
An entry for a journal or periodical article usually contains:
- article title
- journal title
- date of publication
A bibliography may be arranged by author, topic, or some other scheme. Annotated bibliographies give descriptions about how each source is useful to an author in constructing a paper or argument. These descriptions, usually a few sentences long, provide a summary of the source and describe its relevance. Reference management software may be used to keep track of references and generate bibliographies as required.
Bibliographies differ from library catalogs by including only relevant items rather than all items present in a particular library. However, the catalogs of some national libraries effectively serve as national bibliographies (de), as the national libraries own almost all their countries' publications.
Fredson Bowers described and formulated a standardized practice of descriptive bibliography in his Principles of Bibliographical Description (1949). Scholars to this day treat Bowers' scholarly guide as authoritative. In this classic text, Bowers describes the basic function of bibliography as, "[providing] sufficient data so that a reader may identify the book described, understand the printing, and recognize the precise contents" (124).
Descriptive bibliographies as scholarly product
Descriptive bibliographies as a scholarly product usually include information on the following aspect of a given book as a material object:
- Format and Collation/Pagination Statement – a conventional, symbolic formula that describes the book block in terms of sheets, folds, quires, signatures, and pages
- According to Bowers (193), the format of a book is usually abbreviated in the collation formula:
- Broadsheet: I° or b.s. or bs.
- Folio: 2° or fol.
- Quarto: 4° or 4to or Q° or Q
- Octavo: 8° or 8vo
- Duodecimo: 12° or 12mo
- Sexto-decimo: 16° or 16mo
- Tricesimo-secundo: 32° or 32mo
- Sexagesimo-quarto: 64° or 64mo
- The collation, which follows the format, is the statement of the order and size of the gatherings.
- For example, a quarto that consists of the signed gatherings:
- 2 leaves signed A, 4 leaves signed B, 4 leaves signed C, and 2 leaves signed D
- would be represented in the collation formula:
- 4°: A2B-C4D2
- For example, a quarto that consists of the signed gatherings:
- According to Bowers (193), the format of a book is usually abbreviated in the collation formula:
- Binding – a description of the binding techniques (generally for books printed after 1800)
- Title Page Transcription – a transcription of the title page, including rule lines and ornaments
- Contents – a listing of the contents (by section) in the book
- Paper – a description of the physical properties of the paper, including production process, an account of chain-line measurements, and a description of watermarks (if present)
- Illustrations – a description of the illustrations found in the book, including printing process (e.g. woodblock, intaglio, etc.), measurements, and locations in the text
- Presswork – miscellaneous details gleaned from the text about its production
- Copies Examined – an enumeration of the copies examined, including those copies' location (i.e. belonging to which library or collector)
This branch of the bibliographic discipline examines the material features of a textual artifact – such as type, ink, paper, imposition, format, impressions and states of a book – to essentially recreate the conditions of its production. Analytical bibliography often uses collateral evidence – such as general printing practices, trends in format, responses and non-responses to design, etc. – to scrutinize the historical conventions and influences underlying the physical appearance of a text. The bibliographer utilizes knowledge gained from the investigation of physical evidence in the form of a descriptive bibliography or textual bibliography. Descriptive bibliography is the close examination and cataloging of a text as a physical object, recording its size, format, binding, and so on, while textual bibliography (or textual criticism) identifies variations – and the aetiology of variations – in a text with a view to determining "the establishment of the most correct form of [a] text (Bowers 498).
A bibliographer is a person who describes and lists books and other publications, with particular attention to such characteristics as authorship, publication date, edition, typography, etc. A person who limits such efforts to a specific field or discipline is a subject bibliographer."
A bibliographer, in the technical meaning of the word, is anyone who writes about books. But the accepted meaning since at least the 18th century is a person who attempts a comprehensive account—sometimes just a list, sometimes a fuller reckoning—of the books written on a particular subject. In the present, bibliography is no longer a career, generally speaking; bibliographies tend to be written on highly specific subjects and by specialists in the field.
The term bibliographer is sometimes—in particular subject bibliographer—today used about certain roles performed in libraries and bibliographic databases.
Systematic lists of media other than books can be referred to with terms formed analogously to bibliography:
Arachniography is a term coined by NASA research historian Andrew J. Butrica, which means a reference list of URLs about a particular subject. It is equivalent to a bibliography in a book. The name derives from arachne in reference to a spider and its web.
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